Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain – The Yellow Press Is Born

more to

new-lens 5

maine.png
U.S. Maine enters the port of Havana on January 25, 1898, 3 weeks before the explosion and its sinking

THE BACKGROUND

At the end of 19th century most of the world belonged to the “great” and exhausted European powers. At the same time in the United States the appetite for a piece of the pie kept growing so that they too could become a great power, or perhaps “the great power.” Increasingly proud of their growing industrial and military prowess, the U.S. was ready to launch the conquest of the conquerors. Soon the opportunity would arise.

Since 1895 Cuba was in continuous rebellion against the Spanish government. In response the Spanish authorities sent general Valeriano Weyler with the mission of ending the uprising. The American public, which had gladly and willingly accepted their role and that of their government in the extermination of the native population of North America, now seemed very concerned about the repressions suffered by their neighbours, greatly exaggerated by the Cuban refugees. These “heartbreaking” tales and numerous others were reprinted widely, particularly by William Randolph Hearst’s (1863-1951) New York American Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s (1847-1911) New York World, then engaged in a fierce battle for circulation.

THE FOUNDING FATHERS OF THE YELLOW PRESS

Hearst and Pulitzer, although fierce competitors, shared several objectives in common, the most important one without doubt –their uncontrollable desire for profit. Profit depended on circulation, and this increased with the use of illustrations, full-color sections, dazzling headlines, sensational articles, and pseudoscientific themes. All this, together with the attractive price of a penny and, above all, a cutthroat bellicosity in foreign affairs, had turned these two newspapers into a flourishing and prosperous business. The term “yellow press” was coined in the mid-1890s to characterize the sensationalist journalism of both Hearst and Pulitzer who used yellow ink in their war to increase the number of copies in circulation, especially for comic books entitled Yellow Kid that both competitors published.

Hearst skillfully built up the nation’s largest newspaper chain, whose methods were to influence profoundly American journalism. At the beginning of 21st century the Hearst family corporation remained one of the largest media companies in the United States, and included magazines, broadcasting, cartoons and feature films. Pulitzer, born in Hungary, helped establish the pattern of the modern newspaper. In his time he was one of the most influential journalists in North America. In his newspapers Pulitzer combined exhibitions of political corruption and investigative reporting with advertising gimmicks, brazen self-promotion and tabloid journalism. In an effort to attract more readers, he also introduced innovations such as comics, sports coverage and women’s fashion with illustrations, turning them into vehicles of entertainment and pseudo-information. In his testament, Pulitzer donated much of his fortune to the Journalism School of Columbia University (opened in 1912) and established the Pulitzer Prize (needless to say much sought-after, as all monetary prizes are), awarded annually since 1917.

THE DRUMS OF WAR

Through dishonest and exaggerated reports, and war cries in the form of slogans such as “Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain” both newspapers awoke in the American public a sickly and hostile resentment towards Spain, which would turn into the decisive factor for the Spanish-American War of 1898. Hearst even sent the renowned painter Frederic Remington to Cuba to portray as graphically as possible the supposed Spanish misdeeds. Not far from this unbridled agitation of the two newspapers mentioned was, among many others, the influential southern newspaper The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. American sympathy for the rebels kept rising and very soon the general public was ready to accept the war with their arms open.

In February 1898 relations between the United States and Spain deteriorated further. Enrique Dupuy de Lome, Spanish ambassador to the United States, had written a letter to a personal friend in which he described the U.S. President McKinley as weak and too eager to receive public adulation. Cuban revolutionaries intercepted the letter and delivered it to Hearst’s press, which published it on February 9, 1898 in the New York Journal, in an article entitled “The Worst Insult to the United States in its Entire History.” Much of the New York press began to demand resignation of De Lome. Finally, after an excessive campaign on the part of Hearst, de Lome was dismissed and the Spanish government tried to mitigate the discomfort that the yellow press had planted in the United States. However, peace was not going to last much longer.

THE CRY OF WAR

On the afternoon of February 15, an explosion in the port of Havana opened a hole in the hull of the U.S. battleship the Maine, sent there in January 1898 from Key West, Florida, supposedly to protect U.S. citizens and property after anti-Spanish rioting. The first report that appeared, without there having been the slightest investigation of the facts, denounced the sinking of the battleship and the death of 260 sailors as an act of sabotage by Spain. Later investigations by the U.S. Navy did not provide any conclusive evidence, but the public, agitated daily by the yellow press led by Hearst, Pullitzer and their slogan “Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain,” cried out for military intervention. Both newspapers covered the sinking of the battleship extensively, employing the tactics that later would be labelled as “yellow journalism”.

Both newspapers and the U.S. press in general exaggerated and distorted the information that came to their hands, sometimes even inventing news when there were none available that fit their agenda. For a week after the sinking The Journal devoted a daily average of eight and a half pages to the news, editorials and images referring to the Maine incident. Hearst offered a 50.000-dollar reward to anyone who could help discover and identify the perpetrators of the alleged bombing that killed 260 U.S. sailors. The World, hitherto somewhat less yellow than The Journal, indulged in similar special effects, and insisted that the Maine had been bombed or mined. Privately, Pulitzer claimed that “no one in his right mind” could believe that Spain had ordered the destruction of the Maine. However, this did not prevent his newspaper from proclaiming that the only “atonement” that Spain could offer to the United States for the loss of the ship and the lives of the dead sailors was the granting of complete independence to Cuba. In this particular case the leaders of the Congress were more than eager to satisfy the “public” demand for action.

THE WAR

In the Spanish-American war that ensued, “a brief and splendid war” in the words of Secretary of State John Hay, the United States easily defeated Spanish forces in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. The combat began in early May and ended with an armistice in mid-August. In the Treaty of Paris, signed in December 1898 and ratified by the Senate in February 1899, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines to the United States; Cuba became independent from Spain and soon was to begin its struggle for independence from the United States. The vote that ratified the Treaty of Paris was extremely tight, it only exceeded by one vote the two thirds required. In this way, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines and Cuba de facto ceased to be Spanish colonies and turned into U.S. colonies. President McKinley, who claimed that he had not entered the war because of a desire to enlarge the national territory, sided with the “imperialists” to support the ratification, “convinced” that the United States had the obligation to assume responsibility to offer “welfare to a foreign people”. In reality, the U.S. government saw Puerto Rico as a profitable place for tropical agriculture, but its main purpose in seizing the island was to have a secure coal station for its warships. This would guarantee a strong U.S. naval presence in the Caribbean and would create a step towards the Isthmus of Panama, where the transoceanic canal would soon be built. The reasons for the need to “acquire” all the other territories were as obvious as this one.

THE INVESTIGATIONS

The sinking of the Maine was probably the most investigated naval explosion of all time. In addition to the one entrusted by the Spanish government to the naval officers Del Peral and De Salas, two Naval Investigation Courts were ordered: Sampson in 1898 and Vreeland in 1911. In 1976, Admiral Hyman G. Rickover commissioned a private investigation, and the National Geographic Society conducted research in 1999, using computer simulations. In all cases the result seemed unanimous –the sinking was caused by the explosion of the aft warehouses in which part of the ammunition was kept. Where no unified conclusion was reached was as to the causes of the explosion –whether it had been a mine placed outside or whether the cause was internal, for example an accident that would have set coal deposits on fire.

THE RESULTS

The conclusions of the Del Peral and De Salas investigation (1898), which collected all the evidence of the naval artillery officers who had examined the remains of the Maine and showed that the explosion could not have been caused by a mine, were never published by the yellow, or any other, North American press.

The investigation of the Sampson Board Court of Inquiry (1898), ordered by the U.S. government, concluded: “In the opinion of this court, the Maine had been sunk by an underwater mine which caused partial explosion of two or more of its ammunition stores.” However, the report added, “the court has not been able to obtain any evidence to determine who could have been responsible for the destruction of the Maine.”

The investigation of Rickover (1974): Admiral Hyman G. Rickover had always felt intrigued by the Maine disaster and began his private investigation in 1974. Using the data obtained in the two official investigations, from newspapers, personal documents, as well as information on the construction of the ship and its ammunition stores, he concluded that the explosion could not have been caused by a mine. In his opinion, the most likely cause must have been the spontaneous combustion of coal in the deposit next to the ammunition stores. In 1976 Rickover published a book about this investigation under the title “How the battleship Maine was destroyed”.

National Geographic research: In 1998 the National Geographic magazine commissioned an analysis from Advanced Marine Enterprises (AME). This research, carried out to commemorate the centenary of the sinking of Maine, was based on computer models, a technique not available in previous investigations. The results obtained were not conclusive, but subtly supported the possibility that the explosion had been caused by a mine. Some experts, including Admiral Rickover’s team and several analysts of the AME itself, did not agree with these insinuations.

The Discovery Channel investigation: In 2002 the Discovery Channel produced an episode of the documentary series “Unresolved Stories” entitled “The Death of the American Battleship the Maine”, in which photographic evidence, the evidence of the naval experts and archive information were analyzed to determine the cause of the explosion. The end result was that the explosion must have been caused by a fire in the coal deposit, and it identified a breach in the bulkhead separating the coal and ammunition deposits, through which the fire spread to penetrate in the ammunition depot.

THE DEAD

In February 1898 the recovered bodies of the sailors who had died in the explosion of the Maine were buried in the Columbus Cemetery, Havana. Those who were found alive were transferred to hospitals in Havana and Key West, Florida. Those who later died from the injuries were buried in Key West. In December 1899 the bodies that lay in cemeteries in Havana were unearthed and returned to the United States for later burial in the Arlington National Cemetery, approximately 165 sailors. Of the rest, only 62 could be identified. Nine of the bodies were never recovered and 19 crew members, some unidentified, are buried in the Key West cemetery under the statue of a sailor holding an oar.

For several years, the Maine remained in the place of sinking in the port of Havana, although it was evident that at some point it would have to be moved. It occupied a valuable space and the accumulation of sediments around its hull threatened to create a sandbar. In addition, several patriotic groups wanted to recover and transfer the remains of the ship to the United States. On 9 May 1910 the Congress authorized funds for transportation of the Maine, the appropriate burial in the Arlington National Cemetery of the estimated 70 bodies still in the interior, and the transportation of the main mast to Arlington. No new investigation into the sinking was ordered by the Congress at this time.

In February 1912 the Maine was towed away by the Osceola. During the operation, the remains of 66 other marines were found, of which only one (an engineering officer) was identified and his body was later transferred to his hometown.

SOME INEVITABLE CONSIDERATIONS

The U.S. strategy, designed by the Jewish fathers of the constitution, has since the time of the Prophet Nuh always been the same; the same as that used by the confederates against Muhammad (s.a.s) and the believers of Medina in the battle of the Moat; the same used by the Crusaders and the same used in Syria –the same strategy, the same people:

  • False flag attack or “Audacity, always audacity”, the favorite motto of the freemasons –The Maine, Pearl Harbor, the Twin Towers of New York.
  • A fictitious enemy fashioned and modelled by the media –Vietnam; Korea (it must remain divided until the north is destroyed and is taken over by the south); Iraq (Saddam Hussein and his non-existent weapons of mass destruction); Afghanistan (the Taliban –from holy warriors to demons); Syria (a murderous government that suddenly begins to kill off its own subjects with the help of chemical weapons, Russia undid that machination); and Iran (it cannot support a country without the permission of the West; if it does, it is designated as a country sponsor of terrorism).
  • The media orchestrate intense campaigns that ratify accusations of the U.S. government originated by false flag events.
  • Their allies are forced to confirm the imminent threat to the United States and the world through their respective means of communication and the speeches of their leaders, until the United Nations legalizes packages of sanctions and/or armed intervention.
  • The coalition is formalized. More and more confederates are gathered following the U.S. strategy, until a local dispute is turned into an international conflict.
  • They weaken the country designated as “enemy” through sanctions leading to impoverishment and consequently to its ruin.
  • Once the “enemy” nation is isolated and execrated, technological attack (missiles and bombings) begins. Later, gangs of mercenaries, supported from the interior by rebel groups, will enter the arena. Once the country is disarmed and destroyed, the regular armies of the confederates appear on the scene.

THE NEW SITUATION

However, the impunity enjoyed by the West up till now is coming to an end. The millenarian strategy of the confederates is being disrupted again and again, and their armies put to flight before even the attack begins.

The emerging new block is more and more capable of neutralizing skirmishes of the West against third countries. This block’s press came to be seen as true alternative to western yellow press. The hysterical “legal” attacks on Russia Today and other similar platforms are clear symptoms of fear the United States feels in the face of a constantly growing number of people, U.S. citizens among them, who prefer to learn about what is happening in the world and in their own country through RT, Sputnik and other alternative means of communication. Western monopoly of information has come to an end. New, black-ink press on green background has emerged. The window closed for so long has opened and fresh pure breathable air is entering.

The case of Syria is perhaps the most emblematic in this respect. The New Emergent Block has protected militarily this millenary country, the cradle of civilization, from the aggressions orchestrated and led by the West, ordered by the Jewish power (Paris-London-New York). The Block has rejected any kind of sanctions and has continued to trade with Syria. They have declared chemical weapons attacks by the Syrian government “denounced” by White Helmets through the western yellow press to be a forgery. They have provided the Syrian army with the most sophisticated defense systems and have unified their systems of communications, thus preventing any new attempt by the Israeli side to attack Syrian positions.

More and more countries realize with every day that passes that they no longer have to or need to maintain tyrannical dependence on the West. New trade and military agreements of Saudi Arabia with Russia and China, the purchase by India of the S-400 missiles from Russia, the recent trip of the presidents of Italy and Egypt to Moscow are some of the indications that point to a radical change of the international scene.

Will the West be the last to notice? Is it the arrogant disregard for the world and its inhabitants that blinds them and makes them fall into the abyss of ignorance and self-destruction? If so, it will not be our eyes that will shed tears, nor will our hands be those that try to stop the fall. When the world hears the noise produced by their collision with the ground, the time will have come for the great party in honor of justice, freedom and demolition of the calf.

Remember the Maine!

To hell with you!